The Most Unexpected Discovery of My Life: A Live Tortoise on Fernandina Island

May 1, 2019

By Wacho Tapia, Director of the Giant Tortoise Restoration Initiative

During the 29 years I have dedicated to the conservation of the Galapagos Islands and their giant tortoises, I have had the opportunity to participate in many exciting events, including the identification and subsequent description of a new tortoise species. But the emotional high I experienced as a participant in perhaps the most important find of the century — a live tortoise on Fernandina Island — is indescribable. I know that my expedition colleagues, Galapagos National Park rangers Jeffreys Málaga, Eduardo Vilema, Roberto Ballesteros, and Simón Villamar, and the Animal Planet team led by Forrest Galante, were just as exhilarated.

Tortoise on Fernandina Island

The newly-discovered female tortoise on Fernandina Island.

Prior to this discovery, only one specimen of the Fernandina tortoise Chelonoidis phantasticus had ever been found — a male tortoise collected during the California Academy of Sciences expedition in 1905-06. In February 2019, we found a female tortoise that was likely alive when the other tortoise was found, some 112 years ago.

When Animal Planet contacted me in October 2018 regarding a potential trip to Fernandina to shoot an episode of the series “Extinct or Alive,” I was interested. For the last five years, we have been trying to get funding for a mega-expedition to search for giant tortoises all over the island. I indicated my interest in the endeavor, but also made it clear that the possibility of finding a tortoise was near zero.

Animal Planet obtained the necessary permit from the Galapagos National Park Directorate (GNPD), and their team arrived in February 2019 for a five-day expedition to film a search for tortoises on Fernandina. We began at the site where GNPD ranger Jeffreys Málaga and Charles Darwin Foundation researcher Patricia Jaramillo found tortoise scat in 2015.

GNPD Ranger Jeffreys Málaga on Fernandina

GNPD Ranger Jeffreys Málaga in the field.

I must admit that, like most people, I had been convinced that the Fernandina tortoise was extinct until their discovery in 2015. However, when Jeffreys — a very skilled ranger and part of the Giant Tortoise Restoration Initiative — assured me that what they found was unquestionably tortoise scat, I became convinced that at least one living tortoise remained on the island.

That discovery pushed the GTRI team to plan for an exhaustive search across the island as soon as the funding could be secured. This mega-expedition would be one of the more difficult scientific expeditions in the world, as Fernandina is a large, very young island, with more than 60% of its surface formed by recent a’a lava fields that are nearly impossible to cross.

Wacho in the field

The author crossing a lava bed on Fernandina.

Our trip to Fernandina with Forrest and the Animal Planet team would provide more than just filming for a documentary. It gave me the opportunity to make an exploratory visit to better plan the mega-expedition in situ. To temper any false expectations, I explained once again that I was not optimistic; even if a tortoise or more still lived on the island, we would most likely not find one, as the trip was short and the search team small. However, it was an opportunity not to be wasted.

Once we arrived on Fernandina, we set up camp near where Jeffreys had found the tortoise scat four years before. During the first two days of extensive searching, we found traces of a tortoise — probably female — and some dry scat, but no tortoise. On the third day we moved on to several patches of vegetation toward the south, all of which were surrounded by a’a lava flows.

Tortoise "bed"

A “bed” where a tortoise had recently slept on Fernandina.

We started early in the morning. In the first three green patches, we only encountered land iguanas, so we decided to cross a huge lava flow to reach a patch of vegetation we could see in the distance. Upon arriving there, we immediately found tortoise scat, and then the “bed” where a tortoise had slept — perhaps as recently as the night before.

While Forrest and his team filmed this, we heard Jeffreys cry: “Wacho – Tortuga!” I felt hope and excitement bubble up in me. We ran to Jeffreys, where we saw a living female tortoise resting in a small space between rocks and vegetation. We all felt an indescribable emotion: this was the first tortoise found on Fernandina in more than 100 years! And she was alive and well.

The female tortoise found on Fernandina.

With permission from the Galapagos National Park Director, we carefully transported the tortoise to the Tortoise Center on Santa Cruz, where we began studying her diet (from the feces we collected on the island and those we obtained in her corral) and her behavior. This adult female is very old and quite small (approximately 55 cm long; less than 2 feet). She likes to eat cactus as well as other plant species, and is healthy and very active each morning.

Blood samples from this tortoise will be shipped to Yale University, where genetic analysis will confirm whether this old female is a true Chelonoidis phantasticus, as soon as we obtain the export permit.

In addition to the immediate surge of emotions at this monumental discovery, I now have hope that more tortoises exist in other parts of the island that have similar conditions to our search area. Galapagos Conservancy is currently fundraising in support of a mega-expedition and I hope to return soon.

Fernandina Island terrain

The difficult terrain on Fernandina Island.


Wacho TapiaWashington (Wacho) Tapia has served as the Galapagos-based Director of the Giant Tortoise Restoration Initiative since 2014. He coordinates and leads all GTRI fieldwork and plays a vital role in ecosystem conservation work in Galapagos. His work involves constant collaboration with the Galapagos National Park Directorate.

All photos © GTRI.         


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  1. Great find and continuation of a dream to find more live tortoises on Fernandina Island. It shows to never say never until all avenues of discovery can be exhausted and every inch of an area can be searched and chronicled by experts.

  2. Exciting discovery and post! So impressive to hear that! Congrats to everyone!!

  3. It is a pity that the male was taken, ok not an ideal genetic situation, but there would have been potentially 112 years of “Breeding”. It is always good when discoveries like this are made though.

  4. So exciting. Does that mean that there may be another tortoise or that this “lady” is old and has been present but not found before?

  5. Is this female tortoise beyond child bearing age? Will she be brought back to the island of Fernandina? If you find a male, will you introduce them to each other on the island of Fernandina or at the Tortoise Center on Santa Cruise?

    • Galapagos tortoises are known to lay eggs throughout their lives.

  6. Does this tortoise ever get returned to the island? I think she should be taken back after you get information from her; who knows, she may have a friend there somewhere. I think it must have been so very exciting for all of you when you found her; wow, exciting just reading about it!

  7. Will she be returned to her island?

    • Decisions on what is the next stage for this female will be determined after the planned island-wide search results are known. Without knowing yet if more tortoises exist on Fernandina, no firm decisions can be made.

  8. I just watched a rerun of the Animal Planet show, Extinct or Alive. This is so very exciting! The team must be thrilled beyond a lifetime. For the people asking if Fern will be returned to the island, Forest Galante said that this island is an active volcano and to return her would put her in danger of being killed by a lava flow.

  9. I am glad that you found her. Torn between if this is the right thing to do. I understand she was thin when you found her and now she has gain much more weight. I do hope that she can go back to her island one day.

  10. Just saw this on Extinct or Alive!! Fantastic!! So cool!!

  11. such a great discovery and significant event for this world. what would be the best way to find out updates about this adventure?

    • Hi Sally, we’ll be reporting on the next search expedition (which starts the week of 11/10) on our website and on our social media channels (Facebook/Instagram/Twitter). Thanks!

  12. High Praise to the entire team! Please keep readers updated on your efforts to preserve the species. Excellent work!

  13. Is there any update on Frrn?? Were you able to find out anything from the genetic testing is she was carrying any sperm or not??

    • Hi April, we are still awaiting results of the genetic testing.

  14. Sorry to be a damp cloth on everyone’s excitement but isn’t the theory of Galapagos Tortoise differentiation in the islands that they floated to each one before becoming isolated and genetically distinct? If only one tortoise has been found here after a hundred years is it not more likely that she floated there from another island relatively recently and is not in fact an extant member of the Fernandina subspecies? The fact that there has been no update on the genetic testing in a whole year seems very telling to me.

    • Hi Jake — that is indeed a possibility. There are reasons unrelated to that as to why the genetic testing hasn’t been completed yet, however (permitting, etc.). We are hoping that once the pandemic ends the proper permitting will be granted so that we can secure the tests.

  15. Hello. Are there any updates on the genetic tests done on Fern? Was there a follow-up expedition to try to find any other individuals?? Thanks!

    • Hi David, not yet unfortunately as there have been some unforeseen delays due to the pandemic. We are hoping to have some information soon!

  16. April 24th 2021. Just saw a rerun of the 2019 exciting expedition. Where is Fern the female tortoise now? Any updates on the future of the species.

  17. Wonderful work, a superb discovery that will change the future of Fernandina!

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